C/C++ has been the de-facto language for CPU/GPU-intensive high-performance computing applications for the past few decades (C and C++ are used for OpenCL, CUDA, and other GPU frameworks and steadilly holding more popularity compared to Fortran, which is still used for numerics but diminishing) and C# (coupled with the .NET framework dominating universal environment programming along with the Java Virtual Machine) has become the language for Windows desktop apps and games that touches less of complicated low-level aspects (while Julia, Go and Rust wants to replace C/C++ while being blazing fast enough for time-critical applications, it is not yet to a stage that can dethrone the languages except maybe Fortran). SQL has been the default framework for server-side databases as well. Python (which has Cython using C as its backend and thus able to accelerate only a certain time-critical part with C/C++) became the default language for data science overall (quickly replacing Excel, SAS, SPSS, Matlab, even the Wolfram Mathematica Computer Algebra System, etc) and all kinds of machine learning (led by scikit-learn, Tensorflow, Keras, PyTorch, and etc), as well as the universal language for interpreter-based object-oriented programming for coding learners (Visual Basic no longer the language for beginners), quickly replacing the position held by Java just a decade ago. The “pythonic” syntax and semantics are well-known as the standard for many modern languages to benchmark, and also widely emerging as the new server-side web programming language, replacing PHP (Wordpress is quickly losing ground nowadays). Java is still holding strong as the development language for Google’s Android OS, and Kotlin became the modern language (= for Android apps) that drastically simplifies the Java syntax while running on the Java Virtual Machine. R, Perl, Ruby each have their own niche but Python packages aim to cover even these niches. Shell (bash) and PowerShell are really obvious, you need knowledge of this to script Linux/Windows properly. Objective-C and the more recent Swift are keeping their presence as the language used for iOS apps. Scala (using the Java Virtual Machine) and Haskell are slowly superceding LISP as the more mathematics-tasted functional programming languages.
Image by Stack Overflow Annual Developer Survey (2020), redistributed with open-source license from https://insights.stackoverflow.com/survey/2020.
This has sparked the rise of decentralized client-side web applications like various web-based blockchain technologies executed inside the browser completely, but most importantly, stuff that was thought not able to be done in the browser are now very possible. Most of you wouldn’t have known that the Trident and EdgeHTML rendering engines (that has reached EOL with Internet Explorer and the legacy Microsoft Edge) is included in the Windows Explorer (default file browser for Windows), Control Panel (where you remove programs, manage printers, and what your CPU is), and many other default programs embedded within Windows. The relationship between web rendering engines and Operating Systems are expanding more and more, thus Trident has to be phased out for the security of the world. Microsoft has started doing so by moving the Microsoft Edge default browser to the same Blink and V8 engine and codebase Chromium and Chrome uses. Microsoft also published the Chromium-based WebView2 API to replace the web engines in Windows default programs, gradually being updated in a near release of Windows 10.
The Electron framework, developed by GitHub which was aquired by Microsoft, has been developed to use the server-side Node.js platform and create cross-platform desktop applications while using the same codebase to power web applications with near no difference in the experience. The text editors and partially IDEs Visual Studio Code and Atom, the chat and remote meeting applications Slack, Discord, Microsoft Teams, and Skype (also owned by Microsoft) are the most notable programs that use Electron. Electron has revolutionized program development. It is as fast as Python, and already went faster than PHP and Java in the modern multithreaded environment of servers and computers. So why don’t people make a desktop program or a server with the same language used to code in the web? Node.js and Electron is exactly what did this.